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Scar tissue in the breast can be caused by a surgical procedure, such as a breast augmentation, lumpectomy, or mastectomy, or radiation therapy. It is the result of the body activating its healing process after a cut, injury, or damage has occurred to the skin or cells. The body begins to produce collagen, which forms connective tissue that causes the skin to heal back together. Scar tissue can cause pain in the breast because the connective, fibrous tissues create a tightness or hardness in the area.
During a breast augmentation procedure, incisions are made beneath the breast or around the areolas so that the surgeon can insert the implants through these incisions. Then the tissues inside the breast are cut to form a place for the implant. The implant may also be placed under the breast muscle. A person's body naturally forms a layer of scar tissue around the implant, and scars usually form where the initial incisions were made.
The most common complication associated with breast augmentation is a condition that causes the scar tissue to tighten or harden around the implant. This condition, known as capsular contracture, can cause pain, discomfort, and deformation of the implant. It occurs in around 20% of patients who have undergone a breast augmentation, but it is less common in women who choose to have the implant placed beneath the breast muscle.
A lumpectomy is a procedure in which breast tissue that surrounds a suspected cancerous tumor is removed. The tumor and an additional margin are removed so that the medical professional can biopsy the tissue to learn if the cancer has spread throughout the breast from the location of the tumor. When the tissue is removed, fluid will fill the space where the tumor was located. Scar tissue will begin to form in this area and will replace the fluid.
A mastectomy is the surgical removal of the breast and, depending on the type of mastectomy performed, the breast tissue, areola, and lymph nodes may be removed. Many women choose to have a breast reconstruction procedure performed at the same time as the mastectomy. Scar tissue in the breast will form after the reconstruction procedure, creating the outer lining around the implant.
Radiation therapy for breast cancer will often cause the blood vessels and tissue of the breast to be damaged. The tissue will begin to heal, and scarring, also known as radiation fibrosis, will typically form within the breast. Breast tissue can harden because of the scarring, but gentle exercises and massages can help to prevent some toughening of the tissue. Women should consult a medical professional about the risks associated with surgical procedures and the possibility of scar tissue in the breast forming.