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A first trimester abortion is a procedure that terminates a pregnancy within the first three months of the egg being fertilized. A pregnancy is broken down into three trimesters, or sets of three months, that make up the entire nine month pregnancy. Some abortion methods are illegal after the first trimester, so many women who are seeking this procedure are encouraged to do a first trimester abortion to avoid complications and legal issues. In many cases, an abortion can be done by taking pills or medications to terminate the pregnancy, thereby avoiding an invasive surgery.
The three most common methods of first trimester abortion include ingestion of a regimen of pills, injection with a needle, or the use of vacuum aspiration to remove the fetus. The pills are taken orally for several days to weeks, and the medication releases chemicals that eat away at the uterine lining. This causes the pregnancy to detach from the uterus and evacuate naturally. Sometimes other pills are necessary to help control vaginal contractions as well. This method is highly effective and allows a woman to avoid surgery in most cases. Bleeding will occur for several days or weeks after the pregnancy detaches, though risk of complications is fairly low.
An injection works very similarly to the pill method, but the medication is delivered through a needle. Several doses of the medication will probably be necessary to complete the first trimester abortion, and a woman is likely to need several trips to the doctor for regular monitoring. Like the pill method, the injection method is likely to lead to a prolonged period of vaginal bleeding that may last longer than the bleeding associated with a surgery, though this method helps the woman avoid a surgery as well as risk of damage to the cervix.
A vacuum aspiration is a type of first trimester abortion in which a vacuum-like tool is used to essentially suck out the fetus. This method is more invasive than the other methods, as the instruments will need to be inserted into the uterus through the vagina. The process does not take long, and usually only one doctor's visit is necessary. The woman can be sedated during the procedure to lessen the pain, and once the procedure is finished, the woman is quickly ready to leave the doctor's office. This procedure offers an extremely high success rate, though it will require some recovery time once the procedure is finished.