Doxycycline, a common antibiotic in the tetracycline family, is used to treat a number of bacterial infections including anthrax and as a preventative drug for malaria. Like all antibiotics, allergic reactions to members of the tetracycline family are often manifest as skin rashes, hives or welts. Specific to doxycycline, however, and apart from any allergic reaction, is the sometimes permanent photosensitivity that long-term administration of this medication can cause to those who take it. This side effect is also demonstrated through the dermis and sometimes with a rash. Thus, the first step in treating a doxycycline rash is determining whether it is an allergic reaction or a side effect of too much sun exposure.
An allergic doxycycline rash usually occurs early in the course of a given treatment, often on the second or third day of therapy, although it may clinically present itself sooner. A rash associated with doxycycline may be allergic in origin, newly arisen, even if the patient has been treated with the medication in the past and without incident. Antibiotic allergy rashes can present as scattered red pinpoints, hives, or welts. The first step in treatment is to discontinue doxycycline and call the treating physician. A second choice antibiotic will probably be prescribed in its place.
Discontinuation of the medication will not have an immediate effect on an existing allergic doxycycline rash. If possible to use, oral antihistamines may help decrease the systemic allergic reaction. Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory agents, aspirin or acetaminophen can help the swelling. If the doxycycline rash is itchy or irritating, gently bathe the area in a warm oatmeal bath and pat the area dry with a soft towel. Anti-itch ointments and lotions can also be applied to the local area to prevent scratching and subsequent skin breakdown.
Another type of doxycycline rash that may require your attention occurs secondary to sun exposure. The easiest way to deal with this rash is by prevention: use hats, visors, sun umbrellas and sunscreen liberally. In the event that you are overexposed to the sun, treat any resulting sunburn or rash with ointments and lotions to decrease the inflammation and soothe the irritated skin. The difficulty in treating this type of doxycycline rash is that you may be permanently at risk for its development as chronic use of this antibiotic can result in permanent skin photosensitivity.
How Long Doxycycline Rashes Last
One of the common side effects of Doxycycline is the manifestation of skin rashes that often appear within nine days of using the antibiotics. The rashes predominantly appear on sun-exposed skin parts such as the forearms, face, chin, and neck since sunlight exacerbates them.
Secondary skin rash patches may also appear in the non-exposed areas of the skin, such as the back and chest.
The rashes disappear when the antibiotic's dose discontinues, and the administration of oral antihistamines such as Loratadine and Hydroxyzine commences. These medicines are usually administered alternately in the morning and evening.
After a week of this administration, there should be a tremendous decline in the Doxycycline-induced rashes. The rashes should completely disappear after two weeks of treatment.
However, a few factors may contribute to how long the rashes last. Exposure to sunlight may cause the rashes to increase, thus taking longer to disappear. Therefore, if you keep the rashes away from sunlight, they may not last as long.
Other Symptoms Accompanying Doxycycline Rashes
Although Doxycycline prescriptions manage infections and various conditions, they may induce allergic reactions in some patients. These reactions are not limited to skin rashes and may result in other symptoms that indicate that a patient should discontinue the medication.
However, there are practical coping mechanisms you can use to deal with these issues. For instance, you can take painkillers, rest, and upscale your fluid intake to deal with the headaches. Similarly, you should avoid spicy foods and hydrate regularly to cope with the stomach-related side effects.
If these symptoms persist, consult your doctor to ascertain the way forward.
In some rare occurrences, a patient on Doxycycline may experience severe side effects. These usually occur in 1 in 1,000 patients and include:
- Inexplicable bleeding and bruising. Doxycycline may cause random bruises and cause bleeding, such as nosebleeds with unexplained origins. These are usually indications of blood problems that may cause the patient to feel fatigued.
- Diarrhea. Patients may experience diarrhea containing blood or mucus, accompanied by severe stomach cramps.
- Stained teeth. This symptom usually occurs in children below eight years old. The medicine may lead to teeth stains causing them to appear grayish.
- Unusual excretion. Patients on Doxycycline may excrete dark urine and pale bodily waste when they visit the bathroom. These symptoms may indicate liver damage, especially if the patient's eyes and skin turn yellow.
- Inflamed food pipe. The mouth may appear swollen and feel sore. Similarly, patients may experience a severe sore throat, making it difficult to ingest food, leading to a decreased appetite.
Patients who experience these symptoms should stop taking the Doxycycline dose and seek medical assistance immediately to prevent the symptoms from becoming aggravated.
How To Prevent Doxycycline Rashes When Under Medication
Doxycycline often causes rashes on a patient's skin since the antibiotic increases your skin's sensitivity to sunlight. Exposure to sunlight while under the medication, even for a few minutes, can cause rashes, itching, or other skin-related sensitivity issues.
Therefore, it's a good idea to do what you can to limit your exposure to sunlight while you're taking this medication.
You may lower your risk of developing Doxycycline rashes by remaining indoors to avoid direct sunlight, especially from 10 AM to 3 PM. If you must step into the sunlight at these times, ensure you take protective measures to minimize your exposure. You could wear hats, sunglasses, and other clothing that provides UV protection..
Similarly, you can apply sunblock products with a protection factor of at least 15. However, people with sensitive skin may need products with a higher protection factor. Consult your doctor or dermatologist for the right sunblock product while taking Doxycycline.
Alternative Antibiotics in Place of Doxycycline
Doxycycline is a commonly prescribed antibiotic to combat various bacterial infections and illnesses. However, it may cause allergic reactions in some instances, necessitating alternative medications.
Minocycline is a common alternative used to combat some conditions. It is an effective alternative in fighting Lyme disease prophylaxis, skin and soft-tissue infections, and respiratory tract infections such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Similarly, other tetracycline antibiotics such as Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Cephalexin, and Ciprofloxacin provide alternative options to Doxycycline in different scenarios. Your doctor will prescribe the best alternative antibiotic based on your illness.