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The pros of proton therapy for cancer include that it is more accurate than alternative treatments and less likely to cause damage to surrounding tissues. Proton therapy also can be precisely targeted to the exact depth of the tumor, minimizing damage to other parts of the body. The treatment can cause the same side effects as other forms of radiation treatment, however, and also is expensive.
One of the main advantages of proton therapy is that it has a lower chance of causing severe side effects than other forms of therapy. This is because protons are larger and heavier than the particles used in other types of radiation therapy. The larger mass means the protons don’t scatter into other parts of the body as much, reducing collateral damage to surrounding tissue.
It also is easier to target protons to tissue of a certain depth. If other types of radiation are used, such as X-rays, it is difficult to get the radiation to stop at the precise depth of the cancer. This means the radiation continues on and can affect other parts of the body. The energy of protons, on the other hand, can be adjusted so most can’t penetrate any farther than required.
Proton therapy for cancer is thought to cause fewer side effects than other forms of radiation therapy. Even so, there are still a number of side effects that can occur when it is used, although these are dependent on where the treatment is applied and the dosage required. Side effects that occur soon after the treatment — such as throat sores, swelling or infertility depending on the location of the therapy — are known as acute. Late side effects — such as a reduction in the elasticity of the skin, heart disease and even secondary cancers, in rare cases — often take years rather than weeks to become apparent. Many patients who require low-dosage proton therapy for cancer don’t suffer from any side effects at all.
A major disadvantage of proton therapy for cancer is that it’s expensive. This may not be a concern for a patient covered by medical insurance, but it can sometimes cause problems with an insurance company. It is estimated that proton therapy can cost up to three times as much as traditional radiation therapy for cancer, though efforts are being made to develop a more cost-effective alternative that can still be as effective in treating the disease.