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What is Cardiovascular Fitness?

Daniel Liden
Daniel Liden

Cardiovascular fitness is a general term that refers to the overall health of the heart and vascular system, often referred to as the circulatory system. These parts of the body are responsible for delivering oxygen to the organs. Many different organs and tissues, particularly muscles, use a great deal of oxygen during prolonged or intense physical activity. Cardiovascular fitness increases the body's ability to efficiently deliver oxygen where it is needed in order to facilitate greater physical exertion. Fitness can be increased through various endurance-related exercises, such as running or swimming, that involve maintaining an elevated heart rate for a prolonged period of time.

There are many different factors that affect an individual's overall cardiovascular fitness. An individual's heart rate determines how quickly one's heart can pump more blood through the body. Stroke volume is the amount of oxygen-rich blood that one ventricle of the heart can pump with each beat of the heart. Maximal oxygen consumption is the amount oxygen that an individual's body can effectively take in, transport, and use during a specified period of time of exercise. All of these are elements of cardiovascular fitness that can be improved through exercise and a healthy diet.

The cardiovascular system.
The cardiovascular system.

Increased endurance is only one of the many benefits of improved cardiovascular fitness. The heart, lungs, and circulatory system all benefit from increased fitness, allowing for more efficient blood and oxygen movement throughout the entire body. People with high blood pressure can use cardiovascular training to decrease their blood pressure to a healthier level. Increased cardiovascular fitness and cardiovascular activity also increase the body's resting metabolic rate, so the body can burn calories at a higher rate even when resting. Cardiovascular training even causes endorphins to be released into the brain, resulting in a general feeling of well-being and a decrease in stress, anxiety, and depression.

Sports such as tennis provide a good cardiovascular workout.
Sports such as tennis provide a good cardiovascular workout.

While most different types of exercise do improve cardiovascular fitness in some way, there are some types that are particularly beneficial. Many people feel that the only way to improve their fitness is to spend time each day on a treadmill or elliptical. There are, however, many other options that can be considerably more enjoyable. Running is a very effective cardiovascular exercise that can be fun and interesting, particularly if one runs outdoors through interesting landscapes. Sports such as tennis can also provide an excellent workout to increase cardiovascular fitness without the monotony of spending hours at the gym.

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Discussion Comments


@jennythelib - It sounds like you've found what works for you, which is the important thing. I'm not so fond of the dance-based classes, myself - I like jogging. I did one of those strollercise classes for a while when I had a newborn, but I got bored pretty quickly and as soon as baby was old enough for jogging, I was off running again.

Cardiovascular fitness training should never be monotonous; if it is, you're probably missing something! For instance, are you mixing up long, steady sessions with interval sessions? Intervals have special cardiovascular benefits. Have you tried challenging yourself by setting a goal to work towards, like an eight-minute mile? (That was before I had to push that jogging stroller!) Have you tried varying the setting - e.g., getting out of your neighborhood and trying a new trail?


My favorite cardiovascular fitness exercise has always been to go to an exercise class my the gym. These will usually also include strength training, but then, you need that, too!

I've done several that I really enjoyed. Your basic aerobics-and-toning is always fun, or there are dance classes like Zumba (some of these have no strength training component). I've also done a rowing class; a lot of people like spinning, but I'm not as fond of it because I am so short that the bikes are uncomfortable for me. A good step class is particularly challenging.

The nice thing about a class is that being surrounded by other people helps you get motivated. When I just try to get on a treadmill, it's so easy to let thirty minutes become twenty-eight, or to decide that I'm just too tired to up the speed.

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    • The cardiovascular system.
      By: Roman Dekan
      The cardiovascular system.
    • Sports such as tennis provide a good cardiovascular workout.
      By: Galina Barskaya
      Sports such as tennis provide a good cardiovascular workout.
    • The cardiorespiratory system includes the heart and lungs.
      By: Henrie
      The cardiorespiratory system includes the heart and lungs.
    • Running is a popular form of cardiovascular exercise.
      By: Dirima
      Running is a popular form of cardiovascular exercise.