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Penile reconstruction refers to any surgery which rebuilds the penis. This could be to repair a deformity or to make the penis larger or wider for sexual purposes. Most forms of penis reconstruction are used to elongate a naturally small penis or to fix a penis which has been damaged during a previous surgery.
In some cases penile reconstruction is done as a solely cosmetic procedure. Those who want a larger penis for sexual or vanity reasons can have skin grafted from elsewhere on the body and added to the penis. This requires the urethra to be extended for proper urination. On a natural-born male this procedure is relatively simple because the urethra doesn’t need to be lengthened by much. In transgendered males, it is much more complicated.
Biological females who wish to become male may have to undergo additional surgeries. There are two types of penile reconstruction which may be used on a transgendered male. One involves using the skin of the clitoris. It is slowly stretched out to form a small penis that is generally combined with skin grafted from elsewhere on the body. An additional surgery may also include an artificial penis which is inserted into the skin in order to make erection and penetration possible.
Penile reconstruction is done in a similar way for men with especially small penises, although an insert is generally not needed. Some surgeries are not cosmetic in nature, however, and are done for medical reasons. For instance, certain congenital abnormalities may be present at birth which have to be fixed. This can include a penis that is underdeveloped, or a urethra which is not aligned correctly or which is closed entirely.
Surgeries can vary when penile reconstruction is done for medical purposes. In some rare cases, penile surgery may be needed in individuals who have had an unsuccessful surgery in the past. This can include routine circumcisions as well as cosmetic procedures.
Most penile reconstruction surgeries are performed on an inpatient basis, although this may vary based on the procedure. Only a skilled surgeon should attempt any cosmetic surgery, so patients should thoroughly check the references of any doctor being considered. As with any surgery, reconstruction surgeries carry some risks. These can include infection, bleeding, and reactions to anesthesia.