What is the Arbor Vitae?

Andy Josiah
Andy Josiah

The arbor vitae is a tree-shaped white-colored component found in the cerebellum.

Which Part of the Brain Contains the Arbor Vitae?

The arbor vitae, located in the cerebellum, has a branching appearance.
The arbor vitae, located in the cerebellum, has a branching appearance.

The cerebellum is known for its role in motor and sensory information that goes to and from this region of the brain, which is the center of the body’s nervous system. Due to its shape and structure, as well as its functions, its name means “tree of life” in Latin.

The cerebellum is the part of the brain that regulates a person’s motor control. This involves how the body moves and the sequence of body movements. More specifically, it plays a part in a person’s timing, coordination, and precision of movement. It does this by connecting with the body’s system of sensory organs, as well as inputs from other parts of the nervous system.

What is the Function of the Arbor Vitae?

Thuja, or arbor vitae cypress.
Thuja, or arbor vitae cypress.

One of the inputs that it relies on is the arbor vitae, which is situated in the middle of the cerebellum. It belongs to a class of one of two main components of the central nervous system (CNS) known as white matter; the other main component is grey matter. The structure is mostly composed of myelinated axons, nerve fibers that are responsible for transmitting signals through the brain and spinal cord. It gets its pinkish-white color from the fatty component, myelin, which covers the axons.

White matter is made up primarily of axons of nerve cells and are full of myelin, a whitish fatty material.
White matter is made up primarily of axons of nerve cells and are full of myelin, a whitish fatty material.

White matter works with the grey matter in the brain. Acting as a network cable, it transports signals from grey matter to parts of the body’s nervous system, including the cerebellum. In other words, the white matter functions to bring sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum. The myelin that surrounds the axons comprising the arbor vitae insulates its branches, speeding up the transmission of information.

Where is the Arbor Vitae Located in the Brain?

This structure in particular, due to its branches, surrounds or can be found next to four types of grey matter in the cerebellum. There is the dentate nucleus, which comprises the biggest single structure that links the cerebellum with the other parts of the brain. Lying to the dentate nucleus’ medial side is the emboliform nucleus, which joins the globose nucleus to form the interposed nucleus. The globose nucleus is located lateral to the fastigial nucleus. These grey-matter aggregates form the four pairs of nuclei found in the cerebellum.

What Does Arbor Vitae Mean?

The “tree of life” moniker is a reference to an actual genus of coniferous trees in the cypress family. Arborvitae are trees or shrubs with thin outer bark and fibrous inner bark. These trees or shrubs grow in a way that mimics the image of veins or roots. Called Thuja, trees in this genus are native to North America and Western Asia. The name also serves as a metaphor for the arbor vitae's interconnection within the cerebellum.

Where is the Arbor Vitae Located?

As stated above, the arbor vitae is the white matter located in the cerebellum. The arbor vitae is an essential part of the cerebellum’s ability to function properly. The cerebellum is located in the lower, back portion of the brain, above the spinal cord. It is surrounded by other parts of the brain including the temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and the brain stem. Because of the placement of this vital part of the brain, damage can sometimes occur that can have lasting, detrimental effects on a person’s ability to have proper movement and balance functions.

What Happens if the Cerebellum is Damaged?

Because the cerebellum aids in balance, coordination, and posture, it also functions to help people master tasks like bike riding, or playing an instrument. If a person sustains a head injury, a stroke, a brain tumor, or other medical conditions, the cerebellum could be damaged. When the cerebellum is damaged, there are several events that could transpire.

First, a person could possibly lose their ability to move and balance properly. People can also experience vertigo, tremors, or ataxia. There are ways to prevent damage to a person’s cerebellum, and consequently the arbor vitae within the brain as well.

How to Protect Your Cerebellum

First, a person can best protect their cerebellum by protecting their head. Avoid head injuries by wearing a helmet when riding a bike, wearing your seatbelt when in a car, and trying to avoid situations that can cause damage or concussions, like some contact sports.

You can also exercise and eat well. These things can not only give your body a health boost, but they can also stimulate healthy blood flow to your brain. There are some foods that can keep your brain strong, healthy, and functioning at its best. These foods include foods rich in antioxidants and foods high in omega-3 fatty acids.

A person can also avoid alcohol to protect their cerebellum. Too much alcohol can cause damage to the cerebellum and increase the risk of stroke. Smoking is also known to cause damage to the cerebellum. When a person smokes, they increase their chances of having high blood pressure and stroke. In the case of a stroke, a person’s brain can sustain damage, and consequently, the cerebellum and arbor vitae would be damaged as well.

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Discussion Comments

Oceana

My husband's family lives in the northeastern United States, and they have several large arbor vitae trees in their yard. The biggest ones are shaped like Christmas trees, and the smaller shrubs are pruned like hedges.

The trees are super thick with leaves, and they stay green year round. His family uses them to block the cold north wind from their house. In the summer, these trees shelter a pretty flower garden from strong breezes.

They have arbor vitae hedges lining their driveway. They look the same as the trees, only shorter.

lighth0se33

@seag47 – Coordination, timing, and precision are all vital when dancing, and they are required when playing video games, as well. My cousin and I have battles every weekend, and we are both pretty skilled.

Precision and timing are everything. When you are jumping chasms of a specific length and hitting enemies seconds before they could destroy you, your arbor vitae function has to be excellent.

We have developed our skills, and we both have super fast reflexes. I think our brains have memorized the commands to translate through our arbor vitaes, since we play the same games so often.

seag47

Without thinking about it, I rely heavily on my arbor vitae for my job. I am a dance instructor, and I have to tackle some pretty complicated moves. Everything has to be done in time to the music, and if you miss a beat, it can throw the whole routine off.

Since the arbor vitae handles both timing and coordination, I would be lost without it. I'm sure that everyone would, but since my career is so physical, I would suffer even more than an office worker if mine were to malfunction.

StarJo

I remember learning about the myelin sheath that protects the nerves in the human body back in biology class. Something as important and central to the body's operation as the arbor vitae would definitely need a myelin sheath!

The protective covering always made me think of cables. The soft, black substance that covers telephone wires, printer wires, and almost every other kind of wire leading to an electrical outlet is like a myelin sheath to protect the brain, or arbor vitae, from which it originates.

Since damage to the arbor vitae could have horrible consequences, I'm glad it is well insulated. Coordination and movement are pretty crucial to daily life.

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    • The arbor vitae, located in the cerebellum, has a branching appearance.
      By: Alila Medical Media
      The arbor vitae, located in the cerebellum, has a branching appearance.
    • Thuja, or arbor vitae cypress.
      By: Vita Vanaga
      Thuja, or arbor vitae cypress.
    • White matter is made up primarily of axons of nerve cells and are full of myelin, a whitish fatty material.
      By: designua
      White matter is made up primarily of axons of nerve cells and are full of myelin, a whitish fatty material.