Emotional Quotient (EQ) is a way to measure how a person recognizes emotions in himself or herself and others, and manages these emotional states to work better as a group or team. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a value that indicates a person's ability to learn, understand, and apply information and skills in a meaningful way. The major difference between EQ and IQ is what part of a person's mental abilities they measure: understanding emotion or understanding information.
Understanding Emotional and Intelligence Quotient
According to some theories of brain function, a high EQ means someone is self-confident, self-aware, and able to handle difficult emotional experiences. It is often tied directly to the degree of success a person may have in the workplace and in personal relationships. People with high EQ can often better recognize and control their own emotions, and recognize emotional states in others to adjust their behavior accordingly.
A person's IQ, on the other hand, measures concepts like logical reasoning, word comprehension, and math skills rather than creative potential or emotional abilities. People with a high IQ may be able to learn certain subjects very quickly and make connections between ideas that others miss. They often have great academic success, although they may struggle to find classes that challenge them. The ability to acquire knowledge does not necessarily mean people can recognize and manage their own emotional states, however.
Correlations Between EQ and IQ
There is a great deal of disagreement about any potential link between these two quotients; it is not clear if one indicates or has an impact on the other. Emotional intelligence is often more difficult to measure than IQ, and the methods used are fairly different, so it's not easy to compare them on equal terms. There are also many individuals with very high IQs who seem to be limited in terms of social skills and emotional recognition. Such examples suggest that they are different aspects of the human mind and should be considered separately.
Measuring EQ and IQ
People have been measuring IQ for much longer than EQ. The first modern IQ test was developed in the early 20th century; although some aspects of emotional intelligence have been considered since that time, EQ tests really were not developed until the 1990s. Many modifications on these tests have been made since then, and there are competing models for how to most accurately measure these quotients.
An IQ test usually involves a set of standardized questions for which the test taker receives a score. This score is compared against the average scores of others within the same age range to determine a person's intellectual potential. These types of tests may have a cultural or language bias, however, and they do not indicate everything about a person's mind and functionality. For example, IQ measurements on most children with autism are typically very high, yet these children can have difficulties communicating with others.
An EQ exam is often more difficult to design and administer because it deals with information that is difficult to present as a numerical value. While an IQ exam may have one definitive answer for each question, EQ tests are usually more subjective and require a great deal of work to score properly. Short EQ tests can also be problematic as people may realize they are being tested on their emotional capabilities and adjust their answers accordingly. People might not answer questions truthfully, so results may become skewed by what the test taker believe the test giver wants to hear, rather than giving true responses to questions.
Using Emotional and Intelligence Quotient
Once a person's EQ and IQ are determined, they can be used by employers and educators in a variety of ways. Many companies use EQ testing to gauge how well applicants will work with others on a team and their ability to deal with stress and emotional extremes. Teachers and counselors at schools can administer IQ tests to see if students are having difficulties in class due to being too advanced or behind when compared to their peers. EQ tests are often used in education to help identify those students who may need special assistance in learning to manage their emotions or to better communicate with others.
Other Systems for Measuring Intelligence
Some educators and psychologists feel that neither EQ nor IQ testing present the full picture of a human being, and that there are other types of intelligence that may be just as important. One of the most popular alternatives to strictly EQ/IQ systems is the idea of multiple intelligences. This theory states that skills such as language, spatial relations, and body awareness all require different types of intelligence, which should be measured and considered individually.