A cutaneous lesion is a patch of skin that contrasts with surrounding tissue due to differences in texture, thickness, and pigment. Derived from the Latin root cutis, which means skin, these lesions are superficial and can be rough, smooth, leather-like, or raised. They are often characterized as a visual warning sign for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since they appear as one of its earliest symptoms. They are also frequently evidence of skin cancer and skin infections like ringworm, rosacea, and lichen planus. Cutaneous lesions, however, can innocuously appear on newborns as simple birthmarks.
There are specific types of cutaneous lesions distinguished by their composition. Some lesions are made of lipoproteins and are referred to as “asteroid bodies.” Phosphate, iron, and calcium carbonate make up another set of lesions referred to as “Schaumann's bodies.” Residual bodies are composed of lipomucoprotein granules.
Locations of these lesions can span the whole body, especially when they are the result of systemic diseases like lupus. The face, scalp, back and arms are typically areas in which lesions form; they can occur in multiples or as a singular lesion that grows and spreads. Some people suffer lesions on their feet and hands. The presence of lesions on the scalp can often lead to localized hair loss. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause lesions on the penis, although they are rare.
Cancer tumors can start off as cutaneous lesions and are frequently misdiagnosed as mere skin infections. Medical reports show that some patients who suspected their lesions to be ringworm discovered they had lymphoma after the lesions were biopsied by doctors. Early treatment of malignant lesions can be successful and prevent the cancer from spreading into lymph nodes and throughout the body, doctors say.
Lesions from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are the type most commonly seen on HIV victims and patients with acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Other HIV-related lesions are caused by herpes and tuberculosis. These can be treated with anti-viral drugs.
Sarcoidosis, a disease affecting the lungs, eyes, and lymph nodes, can manifest as cutaneous lesions in at least 20 percent of people with the disease. Often these purplish lesions are the only early effects of this disease that eventually spreads beyond the skin to body tissues. The nose and scalp are the most common areas in which to find sarcoidosis-linked lesions.
Treatments for cutaneous lesions include antibiotics, methotrexate, and griseofulvin taken orally. Radiation is an alternative option. Some lesions cannot be cured, but may be mitigated with steroid medications applied topically. Dermatologists might also employ retinoids and immunosuppressives to halt lesions. Occasionally, the presence of a disfiguring lesion can be surgically removed; once cutaneous lesions are removed or cured, pits or scars can be left behind.