We are independent & ad-supported. We may earn a commission for purchases made through our links.

Advertiser Disclosure

Our website is an independent, advertising-supported platform. We provide our content free of charge to our readers, and to keep it that way, we rely on revenue generated through advertisements and affiliate partnerships. This means that when you click on certain links on our site and make a purchase, we may earn a commission. Learn more.

How We Make Money

We sustain our operations through affiliate commissions and advertising. If you click on an affiliate link and make a purchase, we may receive a commission from the merchant at no additional cost to you. We also display advertisements on our website, which help generate revenue to support our work and keep our content free for readers. Our editorial team operates independently from our advertising and affiliate partnerships to ensure that our content remains unbiased and focused on providing you with the best information and recommendations based on thorough research and honest evaluations. To remain transparent, we’ve provided a list of our current affiliate partners here.

What are the Different Types of Neural Cell?

By Jason C. Chavis
Updated Mar 03, 2024
Our promise to you
The Health Board is dedicated to creating trustworthy, high-quality content that always prioritizes transparency, integrity, and inclusivity above all else. Our ensure that our content creation and review process includes rigorous fact-checking, evidence-based, and continual updates to ensure accuracy and reliability.

Our Promise to you

Founded in 2002, our company has been a trusted resource for readers seeking informative and engaging content. Our dedication to quality remains unwavering—and will never change. We follow a strict editorial policy, ensuring that our content is authored by highly qualified professionals and edited by subject matter experts. This guarantees that everything we publish is objective, accurate, and trustworthy.

Over the years, we've refined our approach to cover a wide range of topics, providing readers with reliable and practical advice to enhance their knowledge and skills. That's why millions of readers turn to us each year. Join us in celebrating the joy of learning, guided by standards you can trust.

Editorial Standards

At The Health Board, we are committed to creating content that you can trust. Our editorial process is designed to ensure that every piece of content we publish is accurate, reliable, and informative.

Our team of experienced writers and editors follows a strict set of guidelines to ensure the highest quality content. We conduct thorough research, fact-check all information, and rely on credible sources to back up our claims. Our content is reviewed by subject matter experts to ensure accuracy and clarity.

We believe in transparency and maintain editorial independence from our advertisers. Our team does not receive direct compensation from advertisers, allowing us to create unbiased content that prioritizes your interests.

A neural cell, also known as a neuron, is the basic biochemical cell located within the nervous system. Neural cells come in a variety of different forms; however, the most common delineation between types stems from their function. Sensory neurons are responsible for the brain and nervous system's response mechanisms to stimuli such as light, sound and touch. Motor neurons cause muscle contractions and affect glands when signals are sent from the brain or spinal cord. In addition, inter-neurons are responsible for connecting each neural cell within the various regions of the nervous system.

Neurons come in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on their duties and location. Each individual part of a neural cell can provide for different electrochemical properties given its position in relation to other neural cells. For example, the soma, the central part of the neuron can range in sizes from three to 18 micrometers in diameter.

Each neural cell is divided into a variety of different parts. The nucleus is called the soma and is responsible for protein synthesis within the cell. Extensions of the neural cell are called dendrites, the portion responsible for communicating between each neuron with input information. The axon, on the other hand, carries the signals from the nerves away from the soma, connects to the synapse and releases neurotransmitter chemicals to other neurons.

Due to this process of transmission, the polarity of the cell is highly important, meaning where the axons and dendrites are located. A unipolar neuron cell possesses a long dendrite and a short axon in the same area connecting to spinal cord nerves. Bipolar neuron cells possess the dendrites and axons separately, providing sensory pathways for hearing, sight, smell and taste. Multipolar neurons possess a long axon and a number of dendrites, enabling it to connect to several other nerve cells and transmit a large amount of information.

Other types of nerve cells also exist, each with its own unique characteristics and function. These types of neural cells are generally found in specific areas of the nervous system. Among these include anterior horn cells, basket cells, Betz cells, granule cells, medium spiny neurons, Pukinje cells, pyramidal cells and Renshaw cells. While each of the nerve cells has important features that define certain processes within the nervous system, it is believed that a number of different types of function-specific cells exist that have yet to be discovered.

The Health Board is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.

Discussion Comments

The Health Board, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.

The Health Board, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.