A prolapsed hemorrhoid is a hemorrhoid inside the anus that has been pushed out, usually as a result of straining on the toilet. Prolapsed hemorrhoids can take a number of forms, and at times, they may require medical intervention. Often, however, they can be managed at home. Many people experience hemorrhoids at some point during their lives, and home treatment can resolve the symptoms and increase comfort for the patient while they heal naturally.
Hemorrhoids are small pockets of swollen skin and veins caused by inflammation of the veins in and around the anus. As the veins become inflamed, they swell, and the area becomes irritated. Low level hemorrhoids may not be noticed, but if they get large or start to prolapse, the patient can experience bleeding around the anus in addition to pain, especially while using the toilet. Prompt treatment can bring the inflammation down quickly and reduce more painful symptoms.
In some cases, a hemorrhoid pops out of the anus while someone is straining on the toilet, and retracts when someone is done. In other instances, manual force may be required to push the hemorrhoid back into the anus after it has protruded. With a severe prolapsed hemorrhoid, even manual pressure will not push the swelled tissue back into place. This can be dangerous, as it may result in a strangulated hemorrhoid, a hemorrhoid that has been cut off from its blood supply.
Treatments for this problem can include home care measures like eating a diet that reduces constipation, soaking the area around the anus in warm water with a device like a sitz bath, and applying compresses to the area. Gentle cleanings with astringents can also help reduce the inflammation in addition to reducing the risk of infection. Applications of hemorrhoid cream or lubricants can also help resolve a prolapsed hemorrhoid before it grows large.
If these measures do not work, surgery on the internal hemorrhoid may be required. It can be removed surgically or with the assistance of a laser, or a doctor might use a technique known as rubber band ligation to starve the hemorrhoid of blood so that it drops off. Surgery is an appropriate option when the patient starts to experience complications, is in pain, or there is fear that the hemorrhoid is or may become strangulated, in which case it should be removed before tissue death occurs.