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Renal syndrome is a medical condition involving the kidneys, characterized by renal insufficiency or renal failure which causes a patient to become very sick. A number of medical conditions have been linked with the development of this condition, and it is often seen as a comorbidity, meaning that it happens at the same time as another disease. Treatment of renal syndrome relies on identifying the cause and addressing it while stabilizing the patient's kidney function with measures such as medication and dialysis.
Symptoms of renal problems can include urine retention, an urgent need to urinate, frequent urinate, thirst, fluid retention, painful urination, changes in the composition of the urine, and abdominal pain. When rental problems are a comorbidity, sometimes it is difficult for a doctor to accurately diagnose and treat the patient, as the doctor may not be expecting to see two diseases at once.
One form of renal syndrome occurs in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a condition in which a viral infection causes hemorrhagic fever and the patient develops kidney problems as well. This condition is linked with hantaviruses, which are typically caught through exposure to disease-carrying rodents. The treatment for the condition can vary, depending on which virus is responsible, and the patient may develop renal failure.
In pulmonary-renal syndrome, an inflammation of the kidneys is associated with lung problems. This condition is associated with some autoimmune diseases, and researchers have noted that the presentation of this condition in a patient can help narrow down the determination of which autoimmune condition is responsible for a patient's ill health. Addressing the syndrome in this case involves treating or managing the autoimmune condition and monitoring kidney and lung function for signs of developing complications.
A genetic condition, branchio-oto-renal syndrome, also involves a disruption in kidney function. Patients with this condition have malformations of the ears, neck, and kidneys, and they may develop renal insufficiency or renal failure. Like other genetic conditions, this condition can manifest in varying degrees of severity. It requires life long management and treatment.
People with liver disease can also experience renal syndrome. In people with severe or end-stage liver disease, hepatorenal syndrome can develop. This condition involves a failure of both the kidneys and the liver. Treatment options can vary, depending on the cause for the liver failure, but they can include the need for transplant. Until donor organs are available, various medical techniques can be used to manage the patient and keep him or her stable.