The renal cortex is basically the secondary layer of the kidneys in humans and most other mammals. It tends to be thicker than most of the organ’s inner tissues, and in many ways serves to protect the organ and keep it insulated. The cortex contains mostly nephrons, which are the basic functional units of the kidneys, as well as blood vessels. A number of renal tubules can also be found here. The cortex essentially acts as an anchor for many of the different passageways in the kidney that enable to organ to function. Proper kidney function is essential to overall health, which makes this part of the organ a very important one. Without it, the systems and processes would be a lot more fragile and potentially unstable. Consequently, problems with the cortex or weaknesses anywhere in its surface can lead to a number of potentially life-threatening medical conditions.
People typically have two kidneys, and their basic function is to filter the blood and remove waste products inside the body. The cortex is usually thought of as a sort of an insulation layer. It isn’t the outermost covering, but it isn’t really in the middle, either. Some people think about it like the pith of an orange: it is below the peel, but above the fruit. The cortex is part of the organ certainly, but its main role is usually to hold things in and provide something of a protective coating. Many important parts of the kidney infrastructure also start and sometimes even end here, too.
Nephrons, for example, are very plentiful in the cortex. These are the basic functional units of the kidneys, with each kidney having a million or more of these important structures. In each nephron there is a glomerulus and a renal tubule, which is divided into sections. The renal tubule is a long tube that winds through the organ.
In general there are three main parts of the kidney. From outside in, they are the renal capsule, the renal cortex, and the renal medulla. Each can be identified by its appearance and color. The renal capsule is a transparent membrane that lines the outer part of the kidneys and acts as protection against infection and injury. Located on the inner part of the kidneys, the medulla is darker in color and contains eight or more triangular structures known as the renal “pyramids.” The cortex is between these two. It usually has a paler color, and it extends down between the pyramids of the medulla.
Elements of the Cortex
Each part of the kidney contributes to the elimination of waste and formation of urine inside the body, and the cortex is no exception. Blood vessels deliver blood from the body towards the kidneys, and as blood passes through the renal cortex, the glomerulus filters it to remove waste products before returning the blood to circulation.
The filtrate containing waste products then passes through the sections of the renal tubules, where reabsorption and the secretion of important substances takes place. Sections of the renal tubule found in the cortex are the proximal tubule, the distal convoluted tubule, and portions of the collecting ducts, while the renal medulla contains the Loop of Henle. Urine, the final product, then passes through the ureter down to the bladder for excretion.
Main Role and Purpose
The primary purpose of the cortex is usually to provide a safe and insulated space for this complicated transaction and conversion process to happen. It acts as a sort of padding between the tougher outer layer and the more sensitive inner tubes and loops, and provides pathways that are crucial for proper organ functioning. It is also the site of what is known as “ultrafiltration,” which is usually the final step before urine is ready to be out-processed from the body.
Many diseases can affect the structure and function of the renal cortex in one or both kidneys. Infections, autoimmune diseases, various cancers, and heart disease are some of the biggest issues that can cause the cortex to stop functioning properly. The glumerulus in particular is usually very susceptible to infections and injury from autoimmune disorders, and radioactive dyes and some drugs can also be toxic to the tubules. When these or other problems arise, the cortex can be compromised, and may stop working well or at all. In these cases the kidneys as a whole often slow down, which can lead to a number of serious medical problems.
Cortex problems are usually diagnosed through the use of abdominal ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. Laboratory blood tests and urinalysis can also give healthcare providers some sense of how well the organs are functioning on a more general level, and a renal biopsy is sometimes done to study the structures in these organs and as an aid in the diagnosis of kidney disease. Treatment usually begins as soon as problems have been detected. Sometimes lifestyle changes and medications can correct the situation, but in more serious situations dialysis or even transplant may be necessary.