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What is Tuberculosis?

Nicole Madison
Updated Mar 03, 2024
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. The disease typically attacks the lungs of the infected person, but it may attack other parts of the body as well. Considered one of the most deadly diseases of our time, TB affects an estimated two billion people around the world.

This disease is spread from person to person through droplets in the air. When an infected person coughs, sneezes, speaks, or spits, droplets containing the tuberculosis bacteria are expelled. If another person inhales even a small number of these droplets, he or she may be infected.

Although this disease is contagious, it is not very easy to catch. Usually, transmission of the disease requires repeated contact. In most cases, a person has to be close to an infected individual for quite some time in order to become infected with TB. For this reason, the disease is most easily spread among friends, family members, and roommates. Furthermore, a person is at increased risk of infection when in close quarters with an infected individual.


An individual can be infected with tuberculosis, yet may not have the disease. In fact, most people do not actually develop TB, thanks to the protection of their immune systems. A great number of TB disease cases are actually the result of the reactivation of old, dormant infections.

Symptoms of tuberculosis disease include a lingering cough, fatigue, weight loss, poor appetite, night sweats, fever, and bloody cough. Individuals merely infected with this disease usually do not exhibit symptoms. On the other hand, individuals with the disease may present with all the symptoms, just a few, or none at all.

While it is true that any individual can become infected with tuberculosis, there are some groups of people who are at increased risk of infection. Those infected with HIV, people in close contact with individuals with TB disease, and people from countries with high TB rates are at increased risk. Also at heightened risk are individuals with certain medical conditions, IV drug users, certain types of healthcare workers, prison guards, and some racial and ethnic minorities. Homeless people also face increased risk.

A very simple test exists to determine whether or not a person has been infected with this disease. Currently, the Mantoux test is considered the optimal choice for TB testing. If the result of TB testing is positive, a physician typically follows up with additional testing, such as x-rays and mucous evaluations, to determine whether or not the infected individual has TB disease.

The Health Board is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Nicole Madison
By Nicole Madison
Nicole Madison's love for learning inspires her work as a The Health Board writer, where she focuses on topics like homeschooling, parenting, health, science, and business. Her passion for knowledge is evident in the well-researched and informative articles she authors. As a mother of four, Nicole balances work with quality family time activities such as reading, camping, and beach trips.
Discussion Comments
By motherteresa — On Apr 16, 2009

Tuberculosis is not so fatal anymore, since we have medication that can cure it. There were times in the past when death from tuberculosis were as high as 30 percent.

Since this is a very contagious disease, crowded areas were most susceptible to the spread of tuberculosis.

Nicole Madison
Nicole Madison
Nicole Madison's love for learning inspires her work as a The Health Board writer, where she focuses on topics like...
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