Osseous tissue is a type of connective tissue found in bone. It is the primary constituent of bone, creating the mineral matrix that makes bones hard, strong, and lightweight. Along with osseous tissue, the bones also include marrow, blood vessels, nerves, and epithelium, which covers the surface of the bone. As with many other types of tissue, osseous tissue is continually renewing itself and being broken down by the body.
There are two types of osseous tissue: spongy and compact. Biologically, they are the same, but the cells within the tissue arrange themselves in different ways. Compact tissue found around the outer edges of the bones is made up of a tightly packed matrix of minerals. Spongy tissue is arranged more loosely, creating space for bone marrow inside the middle of the bone. Both matrixes are formed from osteoblasts, cells that produce the collagen used as the backbone, so to speak, of the bone.
Also known as calcium tissue, osseous tissue includes a number of minerals. The body requires a constant supply of minerals to create new supplies of bone, especially while people are growing or in the wake of breaks. People who do not get enough minerals can develop weakened bones and may be at risk for osteoporosis later in life. Certain disorders of the bone can involve an accelerated rate of breakdown of the bone, causing minerals in the bloodstream to rise and making the bones brittle.
The bones play an important role in the body. They provide support for the muscles and nerves, create points of attachment for muscles and tendons to facilitate movement, and house the critical marrow cells that are responsible for producing new blood cells. Bones also provide protection to vulnerable organs like the brain, heart, and lungs. These organs are surrounded by bone formations that are designed to absorb impact and reduce the risk of injury, as damage to these organs can result in serious complications.
Disorders of the bone can involve the osseous tissue. This tissue may overgrow, leading to spurs and other outgrowths of bone. It can grow too slowly, making the bones fragile and potentially leading to stunted growth. This tissue can also become inflamed and infected. Treatment options for bone diseases can include surgery, medications, bone marrow transplants, and a number of other options. An orthopedic doctor is usually involved in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries involving the bone.