Scrotal swelling is an abnormal swelling of the scrotum, the sac that contains the testicles in males. This swelling can happen in males of any age and can be chronic or may occur suddenly. Some potential causes of scrotal swelling include the presence of a cyst, a hernia, or a tumor. Treatment is directed at finding and treating the cause of the swelling. Any abnormal swelling in this area should be reported to a doctor so an accurate diagnosis can be obtained.
An epidymal cyst, also known as a spermatocele, is an abnormal collection of the epididymis and is a common reason for scrotal swelling. The epididymis is a narrow tube extending from the back of each testicle. These cysts are usually small and cause little or no pain. In some cases, the cysts may grow quite large and may cause a fair amount of pain. In these instances, surgery may be necessary to remove the cysts.
An inguinal hernia is another common cause of scrotal swelling. This condition is the result of part of the intestines protruding through the abdominal wall, sometimes into the scrotum. Swelling may come and go, and there may also be pain and redness associated with an inguinal hernia. Surgery to repair the hernia is usually recommended in order to prevent further complications.
Testicular tumors may cause scrotal swelling, especially if the tumors become large. These tumors often appear as small lumps on or in the testicle. If diagnosed early, these tumors can usually be treated with medications or surgical intervention without any long-term complications.
A condition known as testicular torsion can cause sudden, intense pain as well as scrotal swelling. Testicular torsion occurs when one of the testicles rotates on the cord that supports it. This causes the the blood supply to the testicles to be cut off and is considered a medical emergency. Surgery is required immediately in order to preserve future fertility. In severe cases of testicular torsion, the affected testicle may have to be removed.
Trauma to the genital area can create a collection of blood known as a hematocele, often leading to scrotal swelling. This trauma could come from physical injury or recent surgery involving the genital area. Pain and bruising are also common when a hematocele is present. This condition will usually go away on its own without medical intervention, but it should be evaluated by a medical professional to make sure there are no complications that need to be addressed.