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There are various reasons that face swelling may occur, and most of them require some sort of medical treatment to fix the issue. Some disorders can result in swelling of the face, such as sinusitis, kidney disease, and malnutrition, though an eye stye, conjunctivitis, and a tooth abscess can also contribute to facial swelling. This is also often a symptom of an allergic reaction, at which point it is typically accompanied by a rash, difficulty breathing, and even swelling inside the mouth. Finally, some drugs can cause face swelling, including commonly used medications like aspirin, penicillin, prednisone, and the substance inside asthma inhalers.
Some diseases can result in swelling in the face, even when it does not seem like the face should be affected by the medical condition at all. For example, kidney disease may cause this issue, as a malfunctioning kidney can fill the body with fluids, though this is usually also accompanied by swollen hands and feet. Malnutrition can also lead to body and face swelling, though it seems counterintuitive since most people assume the body should become thinner with starvation. Additionally, some smaller issues can affect the entire face, such as a tooth abscess, which can make the cheeks become inflamed and puffy. Both sinusitis and eye infections, such as a stye or conjunctivitis, can also cause the area around the eyes to become swollen, sometimes making the whole face look puffy.
Most allergic reactions are accompanied by swelling in the face, and some even cause the entire inside of the mouth to swell. These symptoms often also come with difficulty breathing due to the swollen mouth, a skin rash, and a fever. Some of the most common allergens include bees, pollen, and insect bites, and pet allergies. Hay fever, contact dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis can all cause facial swelling, making it important to avoid contact with the allergen in question and get medical treatment quickly.
Some people only find out that they are allergic to certain medications when their face swells up after taking the drugs. Some of the most common types of medication that can cause this reaction include steroids, penicillin, aspirin, and corticosteroids like prednisone. Additionally, asthma medication, anticonvulsants, certain diuretics, and glucosteroids can also cause facial swelling in those who are allergic to it. Fortunately, it is usually possible for doctors to treat this symptom so that the swelling goes down quickly, though it may lead to difficulty breathing or death if not treated quickly.